abiotic precipitation: the process of an insoluble solid, known as the precipitate (oftentimes calcium carbonate), emerging from a liquid solution (i.e. tank water), usually caused when two soluble salt particles collide and react. The precipitate will fall to the bottom and remain there, or build up inside equipment which can cause problems over time.
acid: a chemical or compound that, when added to a solution, will lower the pH if there are no bases to neutralize it. Common acids in aquariums are nutrients (nitrate, phosphate), or other carbon-based molecules found in organic matter. Carbon dioxide reacts with water to form carbonic acid.
algae scrubber:a type of filtration device that consists of algae living in a refugium.
alkalinity:指的是水通过抵抗pH值的变化而中和酸的能力，pH值的变化会使水的酸性增强. In the context of aquariums, carbonate hardness (KH) is the main contributor to alkalinity, so much so that any other contributing compounds are usually considered neglible.
amino acids: organic compounds essential to all life; fundamental building blocks of proteins.
ammonia: a toxic nitrogenous compound released when anything organic breaks down. A large amount of decomposition (e.g. from a corpse or uneaten food) can cause ammonia to spike. Ammonia is lethal and will suffocate fish, coral and invertebrates. Ammonia is constantly being released into the water, so having a healthy biofilter is essential for any aquarium.
anoxic: without oxygen. Anoxic zones can occur in thick sand beds or deep crevices in rocks.
bacterial supplements: 在循环过程中，用于加速或确保水箱生物过滤器生长的菌落剂量. Once bacterial supplements are added to the aquarium, 必须定期给它们喂食氨水，或者在水中滴入纯氨水，直到它们被引入ballbet苹果客户端.
base: a chemical or compoud that, when added to a solution, will raise the pH if there are no acids to neutralize it. Common bases in aquariums are minerals (carbonates, calcium, magnesium).
biofilter (or biological filtration): 一个ballbet苹果客户端的生物过滤器由生活在鱼缸底物中的菌落组成, filter media, and surfaces. These bacteria are the only means to carry out the nitrogen cycle and convert toxic nitrogenous compounds into less toxic forms (ammonia > nitrite > nitrate). An active biofilter is mandatory for good tank health. See cycling.
bioload: the amount (or load) of life (or biological matter) in an aquarium.
buffering capacity: water's ability to maintain steady pH levels. A buffering compound, when part of a solution, will bind to acidic or basic compounds and neutralize them. 缓冲能力是指缓冲化合物中和添加的酸/碱的极限(与缓冲化合物的浓度有关), after which the pH of the water will change. pH buffers are required in aquarium water, because pure water (RO/DI) is neutral, so trace amounts of any introdcued acid or base can swing the pH greatly. 有不同的缓冲液来保持水的碱性(碳酸盐和碳酸氢盐)相对. 酸性更强(亚马逊土壤或腐殖质，如泥炭、煤或其他死去的有机物).
calcification: the means by which coral grows, 从水柱中吸收钙和其他矿物质到骨骼结构中的过程.
carbon dioxide (CO2): 动物在呼吸过程中产生的废气，是光合作用的需要. Plants require CO2 to grow and will reduce aquarium CO2 levels in water; planted tanks may require that additional CO2 be diffused or otherwise added in order to promote growth. Excess CO2 can asphixiate fish. 二氧化碳分子不断地在地表的水和空气之间来回转移. 溅到水面可以促进这种交换，并有助于平衡水中的二氧化碳含量，以匹配空气. CO2 in water is acidic.
coral: marine animals, survive using a symbiotic relationship with algae. The algae lives inside the tissue of the coral. 珊瑚保护海藻，并为海藻提供光合作用所需的化合物, and in return the algae provides the coral with beneficial nutrients and amino acids, oxygen, and waste removal.
coral bleaching: when a coral expels all the algae within it, turning it completely white. Without the algae, the coral loses its main supply of nutrients.
cycling: the process of establishing a biofilter within an aquarium. 一旦有足够多的细菌菌落在生产过程中消耗和处理所有的氨和亚硝酸盐化合物, the tank is cycled, or established.
dechlorination: the process of removing chlorine from tap water. Chlorine is toxic to aquatic life, which is exactly why it is used in our water supply (kills infectious bacteria). 自来水必须经过脱氯器处理后才能进入ballbet苹果客户端，否则居民和生物过滤器有死亡的危险.
dilution: 通过替换不含该化学物质或化合物的水来降低该化学物质或化合物的浓度的过程. 这通常是通过换水来完成的:去除一定比例的ballbet苹果客户端水，并替换等量的新水. Some math will be necessary if you need to reduce concentrations to specific levels. For example, if nitrate is at 50ppm, a 50% water change would reduce it to the upper limit (25ppm), or an 80% water change would reduce it to a comfortable 10ppm. Be careful: this assumes the new water has 0ppm of nitrate, which is likely. For other parameters like salinity, 你加入的水的浓度可能比水箱里的水低，但可能大于零. Use our water change calculator to help with the math.
enzyme: a biological catalyst that triggers or accelerates chemical reactions.
glucose: simple sugar produced by plants during photosynthesis and used for respiration.
hardness: the level of dissolved salts and minerals in aquarium water. Hardness can be split into general hardness (GH) and carbonate hardness (KH).
hardness, carbonate (KH): 在水族水中特定的碳酸盐矿物化合物(碳酸盐和碳酸氢盐)的浓度. 碳酸盐化合物是水族箱水中最有效的缓冲化合物，是防止pH值波动所必需的. Carbonate hardness is the main contributor to alkalinity.
hardness, general (GH): 水族水中所有非碳酸盐矿物(主要是钙和镁)的总浓度. 这些矿物质用于生物过程，对维持鱼类健康至关重要.
low-iron: glass with a softer green tint than typical glass, allowing greater light penetration and increased transparency. 结果是一个高清晰度的ballbet苹果客户端，显著改善了观看体验.
necrosis: the death of cells in an organ or tissue.
nitrate: a nitrogenous compound converted from nitrite by the biofilter. Although high concentrations are lethal to aquatic animals, plants and algae require nitrates to grow. 过量的硝酸盐会积累起来，定期换水对保持无毒的硝酸盐水平是必要的.
nitrite: 一种有毒的含氮化合物，在氨经过ballbet苹果客户端的生物过滤器处理后形成. Any measurable amount in an aquarium will burn or kill animals. 水族箱中亚硝酸盐的存在表明生物过滤器还没有建立到可以维持生命的程度.
nitrogen cycle: cyclical process by which nitrogen atoms are passed between living things through the food chain (organic waste > ammonia > nitrite > nitrate > absorbed by plants > eaten by animals > organic waste). Applies beyond the context of aquariums to all ecosystems.
nitrogenous: containing nitrogen. Nitrogenous compounds include ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate.
pH: 一种一般的环境指标，是许多不同的化学物质和化合物(特别是碱度/ KH)的累积结果. It is a measure of the acidity or basicity in water. While fish are able to tolerate steady pH levels within a narrow range, they are most intolerant to rapid changes in pH, even if within the range. Because water enters fish down to their very cells through osmosis, a change in pH changes the pH of their blood too. Regulating their internal pH takes time and energy, so pH should be maintained constant to a 1/10 precision (e.g. constantly 8.2, not swinging between 8.1 and 8.3). 所有的水族植物和动物在遭受疾病影响之前都有一定的pH值范围. While choosing different plants and animals for an aquarium, make sure that all species can thrive in the same pH. Reef aquariums should be slightly basic (pH > 7) and planted aquariums should be slightly acidic (pH < 7). Research the specific pH required for the species you wish to keep.
pH buffer: see buffering capacity.
photosynthesis: the process by which plants use sunlight to produce food (glucose, etc.) from carbon dioxide and water. Oxygen is a waste product.
refugium: a refuge for organisms to live in safety, in a separate reservoir away from the display tank, usually in the sump.
RO/DI:“反渗透”和“去电离”是顺序过滤方法，使水达到非常高的纯度水平. Void of all impurities, RO/DI water is actually too pure for use in aquariums, 在换水之前，应该在水中加入适量的矿物质和盐. However, RO/DI is appropriate for topping up water lost to evaporation, since the minerals and salts from the evaporated water remain inside the aquarium.
water change: necessary to remove excess buildup of nitrates and other waste, and the best way to maintain desired mineral concentration and salinity. Minerals are constantly being depleted from aquarium water, 因此，每周换水补充水分是一个成功ballbet苹果客户端的必要条件. 通常是通过移除一定比例的ballbet苹果客户端水，并重新加入相同体积的准备好的“改变”水. Use our water change calculator 为了计算水的百分比，你应该根据某种化学物质或化合物的浓度来改变.
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